Diagnosis for male infertility can be done by
- History taking and physical examination
- Blood tests to see hormonal disorders and other diseases. Testosterone level tests such as FSH, LH, Testosterone, Prolactin and Testicular biopsy in zero sperm count case.
- Sperm sample collection for examination of quantity and quality, the shape and sperm motility.
- Other examinations such as testicles ultrasound to check epididymis and blood vessels in the scrotum.
Assisted Reproductive Technology solution
Currently, there are various infertility treatments in which each method is suitable for individual patient. In case of male sperm problems such as low sperm count, zero sperm count, abnormal sperm shape and low motility, Assisted Reproductive Technology can be in use.
- IVF or In–vitro Fertilization treatment (IVF)
IVF (In–vitro Fertilization) is the most well-known treatment. Female’s healthy egg and male’s strongest sperms are selected for fertilization outside the body in laboratory environment before being re-injected into the uterus to allow fetus growth.
IVF is suitable for women with fallopian tubes problem or men with low sperm count problems or who has failed IUI.
- Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a treatment for IVF by placing sperm directly into the egg cell. When the egg is fertilized, doctor will remove the embryo into the uterus, same as IVF. This method is suitable when the male has low sperm count and / or abnormal sperm motility.
- Intra – uterine insemination (IUI)
IUI (Intrauterine Insemination) is a fertility treatment by placing male sperm into female uterine cavity. Sperms can reach the fallopian tubes and facilitate natural fertilization. Only vital sperms are selected. In case of female’s irregular ovulation, the female ovary will be stimulated.
IUI is suitable for infertile spouses with unidentified causes, the male has weak sperm cells, or the female has endometrium and ovulation abnormality.
Through IUI, doctor will select the most vital sperms and place them into female uterine cavity close to the time of ovulation, increasing the proximity of sperms and egg.
- Sperm Retrieval (PESA, TESE, MESA)
In event of retrograde ejaculation in male (no sperm when ejaculates), PESA: Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration, TESE: Testicular Sperm Extraction, and MESA: Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration are 3 techniques used to surgical sperm extract from the testes or epididymis and prepare sperm for ICSI.